I. Safety A. Absolute safety override: Any captain may, upon discovery of what they believe to be an unsafe condition either on or off the water in the battle area, call a cease fire. This is done by yelling in a loud voice, "CEASE FIRE!" three times. All firing of cannons, maneuvering of ships, and handling of equipment is to cease at that time. If action is required to put equipment in a safe condition (i.e. closing a discharge valve on a CO2 tank), then that is permitted. The CD will speak with the captain calling the safety cease fire in order to learn the cause. It is the CD's duty to resolve the problem (or clarify the situation if it was not in fact a safety issue) and ensure the safety of all personnel in the battle area. After the situation has been resolved, the CD may direct that battle recommence. THE SAFETY CEASE-FIRE OVERRIDES ALL OTHER CONSIDERATIONS, INCLUDING LOSS OF A SHIP. SAFETY MUST BE AND IS THE IMPERATIVE. B. Gas system requirements 1. All commercially manufactured components may not exceed their rated pressure, and all other components may not exceed 150 psig in all operating conditions. a. All CO2 bottles must be hydrostatically tested at an appropriate commercial facility every 6 years. 2. The highest pressure that may exist downstream of the regulator is 150psig. a. All ships must have a 10/32" port specifically for the purpose of testing this pressure. b A regulator being tested must be tested with a full bottle of gas. c. A regulator's output pressure must be tested by the CD (or his designee) the first time the regulator is used, and after any maintenance. d. A regulator's output pressure may be tested at any time by challenge from another captain, whose regulator will be tested at the same time. Testing will be by the CD or his designee. 3. All ships must have installed a gas cutoff valve that, when toggled, vents all pressure downstream of the regulator. C. Cannon testing 1. Each cannon and torpedo tube must be test-fired from it's mount in the ship by firing into DOW square edge extruded polystyrene insulation that is 2 inches thick(laminates of two 1" sheets not acceptable). The foam must be held solidly during the test and may not be allowed to move or flex. The test material must be mounted 12 inches from the end of the barrels of the weapon being tested. 3 shots will be fired, with 5-10 seconds between shots. If any shots penetrate all the way through the foam, then the firing power of the gun must be reduced until it does not penetrate. a. The gas bottle of a ship having it's guns tested must be full prior to beginning testing. 2. All firing cannons and torpedo tubes on all vessels must be tested at the beginning of an event. If an event runs for 2 or 3 days, then testing on the first day is sufficient for the entire event. 3. Any captain may challenge a ship's guns to be tested, either before or after a sortie (but not during). The guns of the challenger's ship will be tested at the same time. The test will be conducted by the CD or his designee. II. CONSTRUCTION: Ships will be 1/96 scale replicas of warships and civilian ships that sailed during the 1905-1945 period. To be "legal" for this hobby, the hull must actually have floated, even if just sliding down the ways. Concept ships, or even ships that were approved, but not built, are not allowed. Modifications and refits may be incorporated (i.e. torpedo bulges added post-construction, upgunning of turrets), but work on the modification in question must have actually been begun during the 1905-1945 period. A newly constructed ship will be checked by the club Construction Officer for compliance with club rules. If said check is at a battling event, and it fails, the boat may be given a waiver to battle if 3/4 of the attending Captains approve. Said waiver is good for that event only or as long as the Construction Officer specifies. If the boat can be made to onform to the rules, no vote is necessary. A. SCALE & TOLERANCES 1. The boat shall be constructed to a scale of 1/96 of the actual warship. All attempts should be made to be as close to scale as possible. 2. The hull size tolerance +/- 1/2" in length, +/- 1/4" in beam (width), and +/- 1/2" from the scale waterline. 2.a. If more than one waterline can be substantiated from a reliable source, then the captain may select which they wish to use of either standard or heavy condition. Using the heavy waterline does not require the model to be at heavy displacement, in and of itself. 3. Gun barrel length measured from where the barrel exits the turret to the end of the barrel is + 1/2", - 1/8". 4. There shall be a scale number of shafts and props, and a scale number of rudders. They should be mounted in their scale locations, or as close as is practical. 5. Size of props is unrestricted, but they must be the same size, and drag discs are prohibited. 6. Not all props have to function, but all have to be similar in appearance. The pitch and number of blades of the props is up to the Captain. 7. Rudders must scale in size and shape. No enlargement is allowed. 8. The waterline should be marked with a 1/4" stripe the length of the hull. The center of the marked waterline of the model must be within 1/8" of the floating waterline of the model. If tape is used, it must be able to pass the 'drop test'. 9. The paint scheme should be one of the wartime paint schemes used by the country of the ship modeled.. If unknown, then paint above the waterline battleship grey, below the waterline red, and black for the waterline. 10. To enter an event, all ships must have all superstructure parts in place which exceed one cubic inch in volume. Barrels and turrets must be installed for all guns 3" and larger. B. HULL FRAME 1. The boat may be constructed of any material with the exception that balsa is used to cover the windows in the hulls. The balsa thickness and hardness is defined in the Armor section. The balsa covers the area from the deck to 1" below the waterline, and lengthwise from bow to stern. 2. The Bow+Stern may have a combined hard area equal to 8% of the overall length of the hull as measured longitudinally from the centerline of the hull from the extreme point of the bow to the extreme point of the stern whether above or below the waterline. Of this 8%, roughly 2/3's should be the bow hard area, 1/3 the stern hard area. Solid area in the bow and stern is to follow the curvature of the line of the bow. Alternatively, a builder may forgo this and end the bow solid area closer to the bow or stern solid area closer to the stern than is legally permitted, in order to make building easier. However, the builder does NOT get any 'compensatory' hard area elsewhere if this if done. (i.e. You can give up hard area at the bow or stern if you like, but get nothing in return for this) 3. Rib spacing is a follows: a. 1/8" ribs have a minimum spacing of 1" on center. b. 3/16" ribs have a minimum spacing of 1.5" on center. c. 1/4" ribs have a minimum spacing of 2" on center. d. 3/8" ribs have a minimum spacing of 3" on center. 4. Penetrable area must extend to 1" Below the floating waterline, or to the 45 degree line of the bilge, whichever comes first. 5. The maximum thickness of the deck and cap rail is 3/8" for ships with less than 1" of freeboard remaining and 1/2" for ships with 1" or more freeboard. 6. Stringers may be necessary if the shape of the hull dictates. A stringer shall be defined as any solid material that hull skin is attached to that forms the shape of the hull a. No stringers shall be used unless the shape of the hull dictates. i.e. when the hull skin changes direction because of a torpedo bulge you could put a stringer at the crack to have something to glue the balsa to. b. The surface of the stringer which is against the penetrable area of the hull skin shall be no wider than 3/16" but may be any depth. c. There shall be no more than two stringers between any two ribs in the penetrable area of the hull (on each side of the hull). 7. The hull skin immediately around the prop and rudder shaft exits may be impenetrable material. Also if anchors are installed, the area in attaches to may be impenetrable, but not more then 1/8" from the chain exit hole. 8. Penetrable hull areas shall be non self-sealing. 9. Fam or other flood control methods/materials may not extend above the bottom of the penetrable window. 10. Any form of positive hull pressurization is illegal. 11. No water belts, double hull areas, watertight compartments, or other construction advantages may be taken that are attempts to defeat the scope of construction intent. a. A watertight box(es) may be used for the purpose of protecting electronic equipment. This box(es) shall not have sufficient buoyancy to prevent the model from sinking (sinking is defined as a model that will completely submerge). b. No interior box(es), bulkheads, or other interior construction shall subdivide the hull into separate compartments or that will affect the penetrability of the hull skin to bb entries or affect the free flow of water into the hull. 12. On ships which have casement mounted cannons, the cupolas may be constructed of impenetrable material. A 1/8" wide strip on each side of the cupola may also be made impenetrable. If the flat area between cupolas is inset more than 1/2" from the edge of the gunwale the entire casement (cupolas and all flat areas inset greater than 1/2") may be made impenetrable. 13. Maximum model weight shall not exceed the heavy model weight (as listed in the ship list) plus 5%. 14. If a model is designed to be broken in half for transportation, then the joined halves may each have a 1/4" rib when bolted together forms a 1/2" rib. The distance to the nearest rib must be 3". Normal rib spacing occurs after the 3 inches. The halves must be able to separate. C. ARMOR 1. Armor thicknesses are based on the thickest part of the ships belt armor as listed in Conway’s and shall use the following table. 2. Armor must conform to both thickness and pass the corresponding drop test. Hull plating may not be laminated from thinner sheets to make the proper thickness. Belt Armor Balsa 0.00 to 2.9" (0mm to 75mm) 1/32" 3.0" to 7.9" (76mm to 202mm) 1/16" 8.0" to 11.9" (203mm to 303mm) 3/32" 12.0"and greater (304mm and greater) 1/8" Submarines use may 1/16" balsa a. Drop test for 1/32" balsa is: The ship is placed on its side. One end of a 3/16" by 24" or greater brass tube is placed against the ship's hull skin an equal distance between two ribs, but not over a stringer. Note: The hull should be penetrable anywhere between the ribs not over a stringer, and the CD is within his rights to test wherever he feels necessary. Insert a 12" x 1/8" solid brass rod into the brass tube, release the rod to fall against the hull(do not spray any lubricant in the tube or on the rod). Letting the rod fall through the tube and striking the hull skin should result in penetration of the ship's hull skin. Maximum hull strength shall not exceed an 18" drop. b. Drop test for 1/16" balsa is TBD c. Drop test for 3/32" balsa is TBD d. Drop test for 1/8" balsa is TBD 3. Hull skin must penetrate in 2 out of 3 locations on first drop. Test locations will be: 1 above the water line, 1 one the water line, and 1 below the water line. The tester determines the locations to test.. 4. Hull hardness tests may be done at anytime in the ships life as directed by the Construction officer or the Contest Director. D. PUMPS 1. Pumps may be carried by all classes of ships, including convoy ships. The only restriction on pumps is that they must not exceed the following flowrates, based on the battle load (heavy weight) of the ship. 2. The maximum rate of pump flow per the ships heavy tonnage is as follows: a. ¼ gal/min for ships b. ½ gal/min for ships >=2500 and c. ¾ gal/min for ships >=5000 and d. 1 gal/min for ships >=10000 and e. 1 ¼ gal/min for ships >=15000 and f. 1 ½ gal/min for ships >=20000 an g. 1 ¾ gal/min for ships >=25000 and h. 2 gal/min for ships >=30000 and h. 2 ¼ gal/min for ships >=40000 and i. 2 ½ gal/min for ships >60000 tons. 3. Convoy ships may have a pump capacity equal to half that permitted a warship of the same weight. Convoys 2499 tons or less may pump ¼ gal/min. E. BALLAST TANKS for SHIPS 1. The purpose of a ballast tank is to fill it with water for battling and thereby reduce the dry weight. . 2. The ballast tank should be contructed such that it is a free-flooding system, with no means of evacuating the water on demand. Holes in the bottom allows water to enter the tanks and holes in the tops of the tanks provide venting so the tank will fill up. 3. The ballast tank should be contructed so it is full when floating at the waterline. 4. No form of List Control may be used in conjunction with the ballast tanks. i.e. You are not permitted to have a system to move the water from one tank to another to compensate for list or other reasons. F. LIST CONTROL for SHIPS 1. No form of list control is allowed for the hull of the ship.. 2. Counter flooding is not allowed. This is a form of list control. G. Submarine Construction Submarine construction/operation is subject to the same rules as for surface vessels except for the following: 1. Design a. Submarines may use any method of depth control, so long as they are able to sink with all ballast tanks/buoyancy devices full of air. (i.e. they must be sinkable by damage) b. Submarines using active depth control may evacuate their ballast tanks using air, Propel or CO2 or by mechanical means (e.g., piston method, bellows, etc.). Any method that evacuates water from the ballast tank(s) MUST NOT evacuate water from the rest of the inside of the sub. c. Submarine decks are allowed to be impenetrable from the top deck down to the 45 degree line of the hull. d. The sides of the submarine are penetrable as per the surface vessel construction rules e. All functioning torpedo tubes must be located in scale positions. f. Torpedoes must be 1/4" diameter by scale length, just as for surface ships. 2. Operation a. Submarines are not required to have the ability to submerge, and such surface-only submarines will be considered sunk when their decks are fully awash, and are required to run at the scale surfaced waterline. b. A sink is defined as the inability to surface, or the deployment of any recovery device. c. Submarines must sink with internal spaces flooded and ballast tanks dry (if ballast tanks are used). _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ IV. WEAPONS The purpose of the weapons on the ships is to inflict damage in the balsa sides of the enemy ships causing them to sink if too much damage is taken. Weapons should not be operated in a manner that can cause harm to Captains, Bystanders, or other life forms. All safety rules are to be strictly adhered too! A. GUNS 1. Guns can be armed according to the following chart. Gun Caliber Scale Ordanance Fire Rate 3.0" to 4.6" (76mm to 116mm) 1/8 inch diameter 2 second fire rate 4.7" to 6.9" (117mm to 179mm) .177 inch diameter (BB) 3 second fire rate 7.0" to 10.9" (180mm to 279mm) 3/16 inch diameter 4 second fire rate 11.0" to 14.9" (280mm to 379mm) 7/32 inch diameter 6 second fire rate 15.0" to 17” (380mm to 432mm) 1/4 inch diameter 8 second fire rate 2. Maximum gun depression is 20 degrees. Maximum elevation is no higher then level with the horizon. 3. Except for the above rule (III.A.2), all guns shall operate from a scale turret in a scale manner and from the scale location. 4. All types of automatic guns systems are allowed as long as they dont violate any safety rules or other club rules. While automatic guns systems may not have existed in WWII, the ships did have men to target and control the firing of the guns. If you develop a gun that can spot a boat and range the gun and shoot automatically this simulates having scale people on the ship performing this functions independent of the guy steering the ship a. Any automatic guns systems need to have a circuit that monitors the receiver for glitches and shuts the system down when loss of control is detected. Use of the loss-of-signal shutdown system built into many modern receivers is acceptable for this purpose. All shutdown systems must be tested and approved by the safety officer. Automatic guns must also have a manual override to shut them down. b. All automatically firing guns needs a safeguard to prevent it from firing above the horizon (when the ship is listing). If self-leveling cannons are employed, a circuit to disable them if the cannons raise more then 5 degrees above the horizon must be used. If this isn't employed, the ship should have a "sideways list detector" that detects 5 or more degrees of list and disables the offending cannons. c. A list detection system doesn't relieve the Captain of his responsibility to NOT fire cannons above the horizon. Such systems are safeguards. The Captain should turn off his gun systems when his ship starts to list. . B. TORPEDOES 1. Torpedoes may be represented by: --1) 1/4" diameter x scale length cylinders, powered or unpowered --2) a pair of 1/4" ball bearings fired together from a single barrel 2.All other aspects of construction of the torpedo are up to the captain. They can be of any material that is not harmful to the environment. --a)Torpedo propulsion can be CO2, compressed gas (e.g. Propel), spring loaded, or electric. --b)No combustible or reactive materials may be used for propulsion. --c)If using 1/4" ball bearings to simulate torpedoes, a 'shot' may consist of up to two bearings fired at once from the same tube. 3. Torpedoes must be fired from scale sized and scale appearing launchers. The actual firing device inside the launcher housing may vary, but it must look reasonably like the prototype (i.e. the launcher on the real ship). Torpedo tubes must be scale with regards to location, trajectory, and elevation. 4. Captains wishing to arm torpedoes aboard their ship must arm at least half (rounding up) of their main gun turrets. (i.e. if your ship has 5 primary turrets, you'd need to arm at least 3 of them to get torpedoes). --a)Submarines may arm all torpedo tubes, as they are considered to be the primary battery, with decks guns being the secondary battery. For simplicity's sake, Surcouf is covered under this rule. 5.RATE OF FIRE: --a)A launcher that fires a single 'torpedo' at a time can fire one shot per second up to its basic ammunition capacity(whether using a single cannon to simulate multiple tubes, or using multiple single-shot tubes) --b)A launcher that volleys multiple tubes at once may fire one shot to represent the tubes of their launcher. A twin gun representing a quad launcher may fire two volleys 2 seconds apart. A triple representing a quintuple launcher may fire two volleys, 4 seconds apart. --c)Note that the rate of fire is per launcher... If you have 2 launchers bearing on your target, each one can fire at the same time, within the rate of fire rules above. 6. Reload time for each torpedo tube is 5 minutes. This is to simulate the time it takes for the crew to move another torpedo into the tube and prepare it to fire. (Example: If a submarine has four bow tubes and two stern tubes, it may only make four bow shots and two stern shots within a five minute period). --a)If the captain has to manually reload, he must 'call five' and when his time is up, return to harbor and reload. He is not allowed to dump water from his boat while reloadingThis rule does not apply to 'one shot' torpedoes. They may only be reloaded between battles 7. You can use no more torpedoes in a battle then the real boat carried. If no reloads are listed on the shiplist, no reloads may be used in a battle. C. MINES 1. Floating mines can be 1" in diameter and up to 2" in length provided the length is vertical while the mine is floating in the water. 2. The mine should be a pressure sensitive device that activates small spikes (1/4" x 3/4" maximum) that penetrate the balsa when activated. Or mines may be activated by remote control 3. The Captain needs to have a safe way of retrieving the mines. D. PLANES 1. Planes can be launched for Kamikaze/suicide attacks. 2. Method of launch is up to the ship builder. 3. Number of planes available to launch equals the number the ship carried. No manual reloading during battle. 4. Planes should not rise in height about the water more then 6'. 5. Captain must recover all planes after the battle. Planes must float. 6. Planes must be scale in regards to size, shape, locations, launch platform, etc... E. OTHER WEAPONS 1. The above are currently the ONLY sanctioned weapons. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ V. Combat Here the rules of combat are detailed. A. Choosing Sides 1. There will be 2 sides in combat, Allied and Axis . You choose your side by which nationality of boat you operate. 2. Battling sides at club sponsored or sanctioned events are determined by the Alliances of World War II. 3. Any country that was neutral in WWII can be on either side. 4. Any country that fought both sides (Allied/Axis) in WWII can fight either side. The ships moved don't have to be historically accurate. 5. A Captain with a boat that can fight either side must declare (as long as practical) before battle which side they will fight on. They must stay on the side for the entire meet unless a change in sides is approved by 2/3 of the captains present AND the CD. 6. Either the Allied or Axis side can surrender before battle commences. When a side surrenders the Winners Trophy (if one is available) is automatically given to the other side. It will be duly noted in the record books. The Admirals can then divide up into Red Army/Blue Army teams and battle. Such battles will follow club rules, but will not be recorded in the official history books as such battles will be considered "Training Exercises". B. Rams 1. Rams are not allowed. A ram is when a ship touches another ship. Any captain who has been rammed (the RAMMEE) and thinks his ship has been damaged by such contact may call a RAM. He must immediately bring his boat to shore and check for damage. He cannot fire or be fired upon while returning to shore. The RAMMER (ship doing the RAM) shall be penalized if he has damaged the RAMMEE (ship receiving the RAM). The penalty to the RAMMER is as follows: o A. 100 points if the lowest point of damage is above the water line. o B. 300 points if the lowest point of damage is on the water line (stripe). o C. 500 points if the lowest point of damage is below the water line. o D. 1.5 x sink value if the RAMMEE is unable to get his ship to shore before sinking. This is known as a RAM SINK. 2. The RAMMER may NOT call RAM. 3. A captain who has called RAM must return to shore IMMEDIATELY to check the RAM. He may NOT turn off his pump after he has been rammed (so that he may sink) or otherwise dilly dally out in the water (so he may sink). 4. If you do not call RAM immediately after being rammed then you may not ever call ram for that particular situation (can't call it later). C. Scoring is NOT DONE! (but will be soon... get your boat built!) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ VII. Radio Control Currently the boats shall be controlled by radio in the following frequencies. Other methods of control will be looked at in the future as they come available. A. Operation of boats shall be by Radio Control. B. Radios shall be Narrow band surface or mixed-use frequency only. This includes 75 MHz, 27 MHz, any legal amateur radio frequencies, and 2.4GHz spread-spectrum. Using Model Aircraft frequencies (72MHz) for surface models is against the law and not allowed. Captains using amateur radio frequencies under part 95 must hold a valid FCC Amateur Radio Operator license. C. It is recommended that Allies take the even bands and Axis the odd numbered bands. Under the law, no one "owns" a particular frequency, but it is recommended that new captains check which frequencies are in use prior to purchasing a fixed-frequency radio.