Table 3. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Araneae samples collected within the Chippewa and Tittabawassee River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples

Table 4. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Lepidoptera samples collected within the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

ΣPCDD/DFs

TEQ_{WHO-Avian}^{a}

Site^{b}

n

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

R-1

4

12±3.9

(8.1–17)^{c}

6.2–19

0.95±0.41

(0.52–1.4)

0.29–1.6

R-2

3

22±2.8

(20–25)

15–29

1.1±0.41

(0.73–1.5)

0.037–2.1

T-3

1

57^{d}

–

9.3

–

T-4

1

240

–

85

–

T-5

2

(140–180)

–

(87–98)

–

T-6

2

(42–180)

–

(11–47)

–

S-7

3

540±740

(110–1400)

-1300–2400

25±10

(16–36)

-0.15–51

S-8

2

(18–41)

–

(4.5–16)

–

S-9

2

(39–51)

–

(3.1–5.6)

–

^{a} TEQ_{WHO-Avian} were calculated based on the 1998 avian WHO TEF values

^{c} Values were rounded and represent only two significant figures

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples

Table 5. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Nematocera samples collected within the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

ΣPCDD/DFs

TEQ_{WHO-Avian}^{a}

Site^{b}

n

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

R-1

2

(20–42)^{c,d}

–

(1.7–3.7)

–

R-2

1

130

–

9.1

–

T-3

2

(140–170)

–

(40–56)

–

T-4

2

(310–1200)

–

(130–520)

–

T-5

1

800

–

500

–

T-6

1

1100

–

470

–

S-7

2

(170–250)

–

(100–160)

–

S-8

2

(110–140)

–

(56–74)

–

S-9

3

200±49

(160–260)

82–330

76±23

(58–100)

20–130

^{a} TEQ_{WHO-Avian} were calculated based on the 1998 avian WHO TEF values

^{b} R-1 to R-2 = Tittabawassee and Chippewa rivers reference area; T-3 to T-6 = Tittabawassee River study area; S-7 to S-9 = Saginaw River study area

^{c} Values were rounded and represent only two significant figures

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples

Table 6. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Oligocheata (non-depurated) samples collected within the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

ΣPCDD/DFs

TEQ_{WHO-Avian}^{a}

Site^{b}

n

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

R-1

4

54±20

(31–74)^{c}

23–85

1.3±0.92

(0.53–2.6)

-0.16–2.8

R-2

2

(56–86)^{d}

–

(1–2.8)

–

T-3

2

(1600–1800)

–

(200–230)

–

T-4

4

1100±440

(560–1500)

370–1800

280±190

(130–550)

-20–580

T-5

2

(1300–1700)

–

(120–310)

–

T-6

4

2500±1700

(950–4700)

-150–5100

330±97

(190–410)

180–490

S-7

2

(1500–2600)

–

(300–920)

–

S-9

2

(810–1400)

–

(44–68)

–

^{a} TEQ_{WHO-Avian} were calculated based on the 1998 avian WHO TEF values

^{b} R-1 to R-2 = Tittabawassee and Chippewa rivers reference area; T-3 to T-6 = Tittabawassee River study area; S-7 to S-9 = Saginaw River study area

^{c} Values were rounded and represent only two significant figures

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples

Table 7. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Orthoptera samples collected within the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

ΣPCDD/DFs

TEQ_{WHO-Avian}^{a}

Site^{b}

n

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

R-1

2

(12–91)^{c,d}

–

(0.57–0.63)

–

R-2

1

10

–

1.9

–

T-3

1

55

–

23

–

T-4

2

(74–82)

–

(12–14)

–

S-7

2

(5.7–85)

–

(2.1–18)

–

S-9

1

5.6

–

1.1

–

^{a} TEQ_{WHO-Avian} were calculated based on the 1998 avian WHO TEF values

^{b} R-1 to R-2 = Tittabawassee and Chippewa rivers reference area; T-3 to T-6 = Tittabawassee River study area; S-7 to S-9 = Saginaw River study area

^{c} Values were rounded and represent only two significant figures

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples

Table 8. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Trichoptera samples collected within the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

ΣPCDD/DFs

TEQ_{WHO-Avian}^{a}

Site^{b}

n

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

R-1

5

24±13

(13–40)

8.3–40

1.4±0.98

(0.71–3)

0.23–2.7

R-2

5

55±68

(13–180)

-29–140

9.3±16

(0.93–37)

-10–29

T-3

3

170±40

(140–220)

71–270

48±27

(21–74)

-18–110

T-4

4

320±200

(150–520)

7.8–630

100±68

(61–200)

-8.2–210

T-5

4

210±110

(64–310)

34–390

85±63

(22–170)

-16–190

T-6

3

390±180

(230–580)

-54–840

160±96

(91–270)

-79–400

S-7

3

410±170

(250–590)

-11–830

230±140

(130–390)

-110–570

S-8

2

(170–220)^{d}

–

(97–120)

–

S-9

1

160

–

58

–

^{a} TEQ_{WHO-Avian} were calculated based on the 1998 avian WHO TEF values

^{b} R-1 to R-2 = Tittabawassee and Chippewa rivers reference area; T-3 to T-6 = Tittabawassee River study area; S-7 to S-9 = Saginaw River study area

^{c} Values were rounded and represent only two significant figures

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples

Table 9. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Brachycera samples collected within the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

ΣPCDD/DFs

TEQ_{WHO-Avian}^{a}

Site^{b}

n

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

R-1

1

30^{c,d}

–

1.5

–

R-2

1

300

–

13

–

T-3

2

(380–2800)

–

(43–1400)

–

T-4

2

(280–1200)

–

(96–490)

–

T-5

3

1300±900

(500–2300)

-940–3500

640±540

(250–1200)

-690–2000

T-6

1

190

–

100

–

S-9

1

150

–

67

–

^{a} TEQ_{WHO-Avian} were calculated based on the 1998 avian WHO TEF values

^{b} R-1 to R-2 = Tittabawassee and Chippewa rivers reference area; T-3 to T-6 = Tittabawassee River study area; S-7 to S-9 = Saginaw River study area

^{c} Values were rounded and represent only two significant figures

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples

Table 10. Descriptive statistics for ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ_{WHO-Avian} (ng/kg ww) by site from food web invertebrate collections for Ephemeroptera samples collected within the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains during 2004–2006, Midland, Michigan, USA.

ΣPCDD/DFs

TEQ_{WHO-Avian}^{a}

Site^{b}

n

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

mean±SD

(range)

CLMs

R-1

2

(54–2500)^{c,d}

–

(30–32)

–

R-2

3

84±38

(60–130)

-10–180

8.4±9.4

(2.8–19)

-15–32

T-3

2

(250–260)

–

(42–130)

–

T-4

2

(510–620)

–

(210–220)

–

T-5

4

250±62

(190–330)

160–350

84±75

(37–200)

-36–200

T-6

2

(400–480)

–

(220–290)

–

S-7

1

340

–

150

–

S-8

1

110

–

37

–

^{a} TEQ_{WHO-Avian} were calculated based on the 1998 avian WHO TEF values

^{b} R-1 to R-2 = Tittabawassee and Chippewa rivers reference area; T-3 to T-6 = Tittabawassee River study area; S-7 to S-9 = Saginaw River study area

^{c} Values were rounded and represent only two significant figures

^{d} Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence limits (CLMs) were not reported for sites with less than 3 samples